Thursday, August 27, 2020

The ways to reduce crime in the worlds most violent cities Essay Example for Free

The approaches to diminish wrongdoing on the planets most vicious urban communities Essay Wrongdoing has for quite some time been viewed as a significant issue of numerous nations, both created and creating, in the contemporary society. Specifically, the crime percentage increments every year in degree in certain parts around the world. In this discourse, I might want to show my anxiety about the reasons for the issue and the answers for it. There are abstract just as target factors that lead to the acceleration of this unfriendly condition. The first and furthermore the chief reason for this issue is neediness, or we can say, monetary hardship. Individuals are frequently headed to incredible lengths of distress by neediness and this is a significant reason for wrongdoing all around the globe. The way that such disappointment is made is in itself an extremely perilous thing for society in general as worldwide swelling has risen essentially throughout the most recent couple of years. It appears that in our present reality, the rich get more extravagant and the poor get less fortunate. In other words, these down and out individuals need more cash to purchase food and different necessities. In this manner, their final retreat to keep up their lives is to ransack or take, which prompts wrongdoing. More forthright, savagery from predominant press can likewise contribute generously to the expansion of wrongdoing. There are numerous movies and plays containing savage or touchy substance, which affect the watchers. A few people need to imitate the legends, as they see them, in the films without realizing that the conduct in all actuality can be viewed as illicit according to the law. Youngsters are particularly inclined to this sort of factor without the oversight of more established grown-ups. There are additionally numerous social issues achieving this horrible situation. Overpopulation, bigotry, regionalism, family conditions, and regularly political force are a few factors that establish the framework of genuine wrongdoings. Plus, there are other abstract components. As it were, the explanation behind his wrongdoing submitting is mostly not from the weight of the general public or social diseases as referenced above, and extremely hard to control. Famously, mental clutters are a significant reason for wrongdoing of this sort. Other than discouragement, individuals with grave mental issue additionally wind up carrying out violations. Such individuals ought to be treated before their propensities and diseases turn crazy. An individual with misery or some different genuine mental issue can likewise effectively purpose damage to themselves. Also, we have drugs, which are a bane [a reason for trouble], regardless of what we look like at them. An individual dependent on drugs can't bolster their compulsion and as a general rule they end up in an existence of wrongdoing to fuel their propensities. It isn't obscure anyplace on the planet that a medication junkie winds up perpetrating wrongdoings to fund-raise for their propensities. Other than that, there are likewise an enormous number of individuals that are associated with the medication exchange. In spite of the fact that these individuals may not so much be medicate clients themselves, they frequently draw others into medications and violations. Things being what they are, what would it be a good idea for us to, individuals in the general public, never really tackle such an issue? Government, I’d like to state, need to think of some approach that helps slender the hole between the rich and poor people. TV and film rating framework should be carefully executed. G uardians ought to altogether direct their kids, so as not for them to be stuck into tranquilize relating issues, and make their youngsters lead the most satisfied life as could be expected under the circumstances.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

How the World Was Made

Beginnings How The World Was Made Cheerokee, Retold by: James Mooney â€Å"The earth is an incredible island coasting in an ocean of water† Long time back when everything was all water and suspended at the every one of the four cardinal focuses by a string hanging down holding the strong stone. At the point when the earth develops old and dulls it’s strings will snap and the earth will sink down just to be water once more. The Indians were afriad of that event. There was all the creatures above in the Galun'lati, the sky domain. They needed more space and thought about what was underneath the water. The little water-creepy crawly voluntered to look for what was below.He dashed for each bearing, however no firm spot to rest. He went down under and assemble mud, which wound up developing on each side until it in light of the fact that with regards to what we realize call Earth. The creatures were on edge to go down, they requested that the flying creatures check on the of f chance that it wasn’t excessively wet and they said that it was as yet wet. Afterward, the Buzzard went down, he flew all other and got worn out and his wings started to strike the ground making what we call moutains and the creatures thought there would just be mountains so they got back to the Buzzard to come. As it dried, it developed dull so they got the sun and set in a track to circumvent ordinarily at a particular time.They took the sun, however it was extremely sweltering so they pushed it somewhat further until it was the correct temperature for them to glance around. Under this recently discovered earth was another †where plants developed and seasons were unique. There were streams that descended the mountains. At the point when the season would change the water developed hotter and hotter in the fall and in the winter things became colder and colder. At the point when the plants and creatures were made they were advised to watch and save alert for a few even ings and just the owl, jaguar and a couple were given the ower to see and to go about in obscurity and made the prey of fowls and creatures to rest around evening time. With respect to the trees, it was the ceder, pine, tidy, holly and the shrub who were given to be consistently green and to be most noteworthy for medication. The rest needed to lose their leaves each winter. There was just a single kid and one young lady until he struck her a fish and said to increase thus she did, however quickly that they expected that the world wounldn’t keep up and afterward so it was made that a ladies should just have one kid a year thus it has been from that point forward.

Friday, August 21, 2020

whistleblowers :: essays research papers

In view of specific occasions and media embarrassments that have encircled the business network a previous overlooked sort of representatives has recovered significance they are known as the informants. Their significance has arrived at such gigantic statures that they were named in Time magazine’s 2002 Persons of the year as a result of their essential contribution in the Enron case and numerous others that trailed that. The word reference definition expresses that informant as â€Å"One who uncovers something secretive or illuminates against another person†. Informants can get their title regardless of what position of the organization they possess as long as they have solid data any representative can educate regarding dishonest methods or unlawful that the organization they are working for may be locks in. There are numerous situations where informants have been the key part in the indictment of CEOs chiefs, money related specialists, and so on that had been taking part in unlawful strategies and that if there have not be a result of the informants helper the specialists would have never at any point notice those lawful offenses. There are numerous models one that is refered to on the article is the situation of James Alderson a CFO in a little clinic that sued the organization that procured the emergency clinic an enormous clinical organization called Quorum Health Group Inc. some portion of Columbia/HCA Company since he discovered that the saved two arrangements of books for planning social insurance costs for Medicare patients one that was sent to the Federal government with exceptionally swelled expenses and the other one that nitty gritty genuine expense of tasks. The case began in 1990 and finished until 2003 we additionally need to consider that in 1990 the business condition didn't have the enormous worries that we have today over the administration of budgetary data and there were relatively few laws to associate informants in their motivation. Be that as it may, since that time new arrangements and laws have developed to help informants and there is a more noteworthy focal point of officials over moral issues. By blowing the whistle Alderson realized that he was imperiling his vocation and he did he needed to back the entire case with his checkbook, he lost his activity and had

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Racial Discrimination Against Black Americans - 1203 Words

Race Matters [Name of the Writer] [Name of the Institute] Race Matters Question 1 The author Cornel West has addressed the prevalent issue of racial discrimination in the United States of America. His book holds a pivotal position as a best seller that talks about the urgency and importance of this issue. He has actually highlighted a range of issues that involves the racial discrimination against the Black Americans (West, 1993). He has opened discussions on the critical situation of black leadership, the injured relations between the Jews and the Black Americans, the conservatism of the Black Americans, and the parables of the black sexuality in America (Miah, n.d). The topic of racial discrimination is not a new one, but the bold interpretations of Cornel West has made the book worth reading. It has been an old debate now that the Black Americans are deprived of their fundamental rights in the United States, and due to this unequal and unjust treatment, there is a clear line of distinction between the societal values of the Black Americans and White Americans ( West, 1993). Being different on the basis of cast, creed, culture, color, and ethnic background, Black Americans have been suffering from racial disparity, which is expected to be in prevalence for yet some more centuries. Question 2 Cornel West has engaged his audience with his remarkable commentary on the past and present conditions of the Black Americans and their issues in the United States. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay On Police Brutality1478 Words   |  6 Pageslike hogs due to racial discrimination. In current day America racial discrimination is ongoing, which leads to police brutality. In â€Å"Why Are So Many Black Americans Killed By Police?†, Carl Bialik, reveals racism (consciously or not) leads to police brutality of African Americans. Kia Makarechi in â€Å"What The Data Really Says About Police and Racial Bias†, shows evidence of African Americans receiving more police brutality because of racism. Clint Smith in â€Å"Racism, Stress, and Black Death†, conveysRead MoreA Raisin In The Sun Is Play Written About A Family In The1592 Words   |  7 Pages and they have to deal with discriminatory housing practices and the threat of racial violence. A Raisin in the Sun is relevant tod ay because a lot of the insights it makes about racism are still debated over today. One of the issues it tackles is racial violence. In the play, the family deals with the threat of racial violence from people who don’t want them to move into their new house. Today, many feel that racial violence is being done by the police. The story also deals with the family’s strugglesRead MoreDiscrimination Against Race And Racial Discrimination786 Words   |  4 Pages One of the biggest issue in the world is discrimination against race. The definition of discrimination is separating individuals by gender, language, and race. Discrimination is one of the main reason why the world is divided in some area. Discrimination has been spreading from generation to generation. However, some people have been trying to avoid discrimination, but discrimination has been existed since the 1400s. Discrimination against race has infected individuals personal growth inRead MoreRacial Div ersity705 Words   |  3 PagesRacial Diversity: Historical Worksheet Donald K. Morgan Building Organizational Capacity Juancho A. Lim June 5, 2013 Throughout most of U.S. history, in most locations, what race has been in the majority? What is the common ancestral background of most members of this group? According to The Changing Racial And Ethnic Composition Of The Us Population In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the classification by race expandedRead MoreDiscrimination Lives Within Everyone Essay1013 Words   |  5 PagesRacial discrimination has affected the world in many ways. Historically in the United States there have always been racial issues between the African Americans and white Americans. Most African Americans were sidelined in all areas of economic, political and social growth. Whites were seen to be more superior, which led to segregation of housing, schools, restaurants, hotels, and transportation. Equally concerning, are the instances of religious discrimination that still occur in this countryRead MoreRacial Discrimination Against Minorities Within The American Workforce Essay1677 Words   |  7 PagesRacial discrimination against minorities within the American workforce is evident. Structural racism is the cause of why qualified minorities lacking opportunities, while lesser-qualified White-Americans are hired. This paper will discuss what structural racism is, how it plays into racial discrimination against qualifieded minorities, what can be done to prevent further racial profiling, and briefly touch on the adverse effects racial prejudice has on the economy. Keywords: structural racism, qualifiedRead MoreThe Civil Disobedience Of African Americans1369 Words   |  6 PagesThe history of African-Americans has come a long way through the years. They were first imported as slaves as property to do hard labor for their owners. With no freedom, they were forced to obey orders until a revolution appeared. It took a civil war to finally free blacks and to give them the right to be citizens of the country. It was then that the chains of slavery were finally broken, but the chain of discrimination still existed. Under racial segregation, colored people were not allowed toRead MoreBlack And White Racism : Racism1189 Words   |  5 PagesName: Course: Tutor: Date: Black and White Racism Introduction For a long time, racism has occurred as a controversial and hotly debated topic in the American society. Racism has infiltrated the way individuals behave, think, and act in different capacities. It is a grievous insult in referring somebody to as a ‘racist’. Black Americans have accused whites, the nation’s ethnic majority for racism, whereas whites have also accused blacks of racism. Widespread uncertainty, disagreement, and confusionRead MoreRace And Racial Inequality During The Civil Rights Of Everyone Has Improved Over The Last Few Decades1719 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Racism[ˈrÄ Ã‹Å'sizÉ™m]prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one s own race is superior†. Race and racial inequality have strongly shaped American history from its beginning up until now . Americans like to think of the founding of the American colonies and, later, the United States, as driven by libert y and freedom .However, from the start America was founded on inequality which involved the absolute oppression for not onlyRead MoreRacial Discrimination : The Black Community1352 Words   |  6 PagesRacial discrimination is demonstrated in many different ways in every part and corner of each country. Some ask, what is racial discrimination and how does it affect early and today’s society? Racial discrimination occurs when a person is treated unfairly and differently than others because of their skin tone, ethnicity, and nationality. It’s been an issue for more than a hundred years. Being against people that were a different skin tone led to segregation and slavery in the early times. Slavery

Friday, May 15, 2020

Short Story - 928 Words

We got Carla off to work on time. Vickie was a mess this morning. She was trying every trick she knew to lure me into having sex with her. Why would I have sex with you when I have Sue and Karen available and eager? I asked her. Karen perked up noticeably when I said that. I thought you were going to make me have sex with you, she said. Please, Vickie begged. Ill do anything, she promised. Anything? I asked. Anything, she reiterated after thinking about it for a second. I whispered to Sue and she grabbed Karen and headed for the bedroom. I had Vickie kneel at the end of our coffee table. Vickie, kimchee, edit, I said. Then I gave her a couple of commands, tied her to the table, and ended her programming. Come here†¦show more content†¦Was it worth it? I asked her afterwards. Yes, she sobbed, humiliated, her voice barely audible. You know, you agreed to do that all on your own, right? I goaded. You may be Kings new bitch because he sure liked it, I gloated, humiliating her even more. I untied her and told her to take a shower. I reminded her that she had to pick up her sister soon. She froze and stared at me for several seconds. I could see the realization hit her that I could, and probably would, use her sister against her. I definitely intended to, especially after Karen told me that Vickies fifteen-year-old sister, Lydia, had tried to convince Vickie to let me be her first. Initially, Vickie agreed, only to renege on her promise when I dumped her. Evidently, horny women run in Vickie’s and Lydia’s family. Their mother got pregnant at fifteen. She put Vickie on birth control as soon as she started having periods at age twelve--just in case. Vickie started having sex at age fourteen. Their mother was much stricter with Lydia and Lydia was ready to ask the first swinging dick she could get alone for five minutes to fuck her. According to what Vickie revealed to me when I interrogated her, Lydia was already shoving cucumbers inside her pussy and carrots up her ass. Sue and Karen came out of the bedroom laughing their asses off over what I did to Vickie. Remind me to never piss you off, Karen saidShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Short Stories:  Ã‚  Characteristics †¢Short  - Can usually be read in one sitting. †¢Concise:  Ã‚  Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.  Ã‚  This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot †¢Usually tries to leave behind a  single impression  or effect.  Ã‚  Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. †¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing  personal experiences  and  prior knowledge  to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words   |  5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words   |  8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. A  short story  like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), â€Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.† In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words   |  3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty’ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories â€Å"Miss Brill† and â€Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a wedding† written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words   |  7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. The notion to overlook someone because they are not the same race, gender, creed, religion seems to be the way of the world for a long time. Racism is so prevalentRead MoreThe Idol Short Story1728 Words   |  7 PagesThe short stories â€Å"The Idol† by Adolfo Bioy Casares and â€Å"Axolotl† by Julio Cortà ¡zar address the notion of obsession, and the resulting harm that can come from it. Like all addictions, obsession makes one feel overwhelmed, as a single thought comes to continuously intruding our mind, causing the individual to not be able to ignore these thoughts. In â€Å"Axolotl†, the narr ator is drawn upon the axolotls at the Jardin des Plantes aquarium and his fascination towards the axolotls becomes an obsession. InRead MoreGothic Short Story1447 Words   |  6 Pages The End. In the short story, â€Å"Emma Barrett,† the reader follows a search party group searching for a missing girl named Emma deep in a forest in Oregon. The story follows through first person narration by a group member named Holden. This story would be considered a gothic short story because of its use of setting, theme, symbolism, and literary devices used to portray the horror of a missing six-year-old girl. Plot is the literal chronological development of the story, the sequence of events

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Case Of Colleagues Holding The Same Job Position Essay

Workplace Intercultural Conflict Name Institution Workplace Intercultural Conflict Introduction This is a case of colleagues holding the same job position in a multinational company. EUROi is an IT company that was formed as a result of a merger between a British firm, RoyaIPC, and a French firm, Internet du France (IDF). Margaret who is 50 years old and her 35 year old colleague Georges are supposed to work together each representing their respective companies. Georges works as the marketing manager representing the French company while Margaret was sent from London to France to work in the same position for the British partner. Although both employees have exceptional leadership skills, they are not ready to work as a team. While Margaret seems to interfere with Georges personal life, Georges considers her uneducated and he categorically states his displeasure with her focus towards company policies and money. On the other hand, she accuses Georges of being lazy and autocratic. Identification of the Problem The main problem arising from the strained workplace relationship between Margaret and Georges is the different cultures that the two employees come from (McFarlin Sweeney, 2013). While Margaret is from England, Georges comes from France, a country with a slightly different culture. Margaret believes that company rules and finances should be taken seriously, something that Georges believe is a weakness rather than a principle. On the other hand,Show MoreRelatedWomen s Job Never Done1603 Words   |  7 PagesNot only is women s job never done, the definition keeps changing. This couldn t be any truer; women play many different roles from wives to mothers to professionals. In today’s society women has moved farther away from their traditional role as homemaker or housewife and more towards the role of a modern, self-sustaining person. This role is still not accepted in society and prejudice is prevalent in the workplace. Many companies still discr iminate against women in various job rolls, even when thereRead Morethomas green Essay1050 Words   |  5 Pagesthe existing market environment. A mood of silent conflict developed quickly between them. Davis was very unhappy about Green’s performance and working attitude even after three months of his promotion. Green was concerned that Davis was building a case to fire him. Green, after learning that Davis had sent a mail to McDonald regarding his performance, was very worried about the situation and did not know how he should explain his perspective to McDonald. In order to salvage his professional carrierRead MoreA Brief Note On Police Double Standard And The Media1081 Words   |  5 Pages I am writing my paper on police double standard. It came to my attention that when police are in the media, they are portrayed as the bad guy. I asked myself if that is the case, or is that the media perception. The police are in a position to protect and serve the community. The community should feel nothing but security and trust towards a police officer right? I am also aware that the media can also mislead and also contribute to the community feeling negative towards the cops. Very rarely doRead MoreGender Inequality Within The Workplace1379 Words   |  6 Pagesto job stratification Wage discrimination exists when workers are equally qualified and perform the same work but one group of workers is paid more than another. Historically, wage discrimination has favored men over similarly qualified women. Income disparity between genders stems from processes that determine the quality of jobs and earnings associated with jobs. Earnings associated with jobs will cause income inequality to take form in the placement of individuals into particular jobs throughRead MorePolice Misconduct And The Criminal Justice System1039 Words   |  5 Pagesof authority. Police corruption can defined as any prescribed act involving the misuse of the officer’s official position for money or money’s worth or personal gain (Barker Roebuck, 1983). Three elements identify police corruption 1) the behavior must be forbidden by law, rule, regulation and ethical standard. 2) The behavior must involve the misuse of the officers’ official position i.e. if the officer fails to do something he or she is supposed to do or does something against what he or she isRead MoreEthical Leadership : Ethics And Leadership1730 Words   |  7 Pagesleadership encompasses the manner in which one leaders th at respects the rights and dignity of other individuals. According to Preston (1996) â€Å"ethics is concerned about what is right, fair, just, or good; about what we ought to do, not just what is the case or what is most acceptable or expedient† (p.16). Ethical leadership calls for ethical leaders in the organization. However, although an organization’s beliefs, valves, customs and philosophies need to start from the chief executive, the managers andRead MoreThe Correlation Between Income And Happiness1477 Words   |  6 Pagesmoney and happiness are presumed to be causally linked, and higher incomes should generate more happiness (Christopher Boyce, 2010). Based on the absolute-income hypothesis, those who are richer are happier than those who are less well off within that same society (Christopher Boyce, 2010). Yet, a straightforward causal relationship between money and happiness cannot be reflected by these results necessarily. The concept of absolute income resulting in more happiness is unable to explain the EasterlinRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Fall Scene 713 Words   |  3 Pages instead of coming into the shoot overly ambitious. Also, we as a crew delegated tasks based on our strengths to make the shoot easier. Connor, the D.P., took notes from me, and composed his own shot list, which I complete approved of. This is the case with my production designer, Collin. On the set, delegating really helped us conserve time the most. Also, this allowed everyone to do their own thing, which also kept energy and positivity high. Since it was such short notice, the actors and I cameRead MoreCareer Goals And Knowledge Of Field And Program Essay1387 Words   |  6 Pagesseamless transfer agreement which allows students to apply directly into the third year of the bachelor’s degree pro gram. This is something that I would be interested in to further my studies on this topic. 3. Option one: Correctional Peace Officer. The job of a Correctional Peace Officer requires the Correctional Peace Officer to ensure the inmates are in safe care, custody and control. These consist of individuals who are waiting for trail or to be convicted. Further, Correctional Peace Officers areRead MoreWomen s Level Of Literacy1115 Words   |  5 Pagesbackgrounds. By doing this, Brandt was able to engage and observe whether they all had a different way of adapting to reading and writing, but also if social economic status, or SES, affected the way they became literate. In this essay, Deborah Brandt positions herself and argues the idea that there are many aspects in society that alter people’s level of literacy. From a personal level of literacy to the global marketing system, everything is influenced by sponsors. Sponsors, as Brant states, are forces

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cost Production Case of Car Manufacturing Industry

Question: Discuss about the Cost Productionfor Case of Car Manufacturing Industry. Answer: Introduction The report discusses the cost of production in the manufacturing industry of Australia. As there are different segments in manufacturing industry, this report focuses on the car manufacturing industry of Australia. The article, which is focused in this study, highlights the issue of closing car-manufacturing industry of Australia. The main reason of closing this industry is increasing cost of production. The article written by Dowling (2017) mentioned that three major car manufacturing company of Australia such as Toyota, Holden and Ford are about to shut down their production by the end of 2017. The report tries to find out the reason of shut down and the reasons for rising cost of production in this industry. Economic Analysis The main reason of closing car-manufacturing business in Australia of three companies is non decreasing cost of production. All three companies hold significant share in the car manufacturing industry of Australia. As explained by Valadkhani (2016), primary reason of closure of car production is high resource cost both in terms of labour and parts of car. Wage rate in Australia is predominantly high compared to most of the countries. A car manufacturing company needs to recruit a large number of workers in this company from production unit to supply chain units. In order to recruit this large number of employees, these companies must incur huge cost of production. As wage rate is also high in Australia due to increase in minimum wage by Australian government, it has become difficult for the loss making firms to continue operation in this economy (Hawthorne 2017). Moreover, cost of automobile parts and raw materials are high to increase total cost of production significantly. Therefor e, all these three firms have decided to shift their production unit to the overseas, where cost of production is lower. Figure 1: A high cost firm (Source: created by author) As depicted by figure 1, when firms enter into the market, market share of individual firm decreases. Therefore, as supply increases in the competitive market, price tends to decrease to P2. However if a firm fails to reduce cost in long run, it is difficult to run operation in long run. In figure 1, firm makes loss in long run as its cost structure is LAC1 whereas equilibrium is achieved at a lower price and lower cost, which is unattainable by high cost firm. Therefore, firm makes loss in the long run as LAC AR = MR = P (Shepherd 2015). Same picture is applicable for these three loss making car manufacturer. These firms have failed to compete with low cost car manufacturer in the Australian market. Holden, Toyota and Ford now try to recover the variable costs until shut down through selling car parts in the international market. Demand is another factor that drove for the shut down by three companies. Due to high costs, demand pattern in this industry is also changing (Clibborn, Lansbury and Wright 2016). Demand for car manufactured in overseas is also increasing due to technologically improved product, low cost and low price. Moreover, appreciation of Australian dollar and reduction in import tariff has made import cheaper. Therefore, demand for car manufactured in overseas is increasing. If demand is low, there is little scope of increasing revenue from domestic demand. It becomes harder for the firm to recover cost. Holden, Toyota and Ford have high cost structure that they failed to recover total cost in the face of decreasing demand (Baqaee 2015). They need government assistance to survive in the long run, which is not feasible as it increases government expenditure. As au tomobile industry has significant share in the Australian GDP, shut down of production plan might create a huge joblessness. Moreover, other sectors, which have linkages with car manufacturing industry, are also likely to have damage in their company. Recommendation There are some possible ways through which a loss making company can be saved. Adoption of low cost model in manufacturing process can be a policy. As labour is costlier as a factor of production, capital augmented production function can be adopted by the loss making companies. Capital can be used more intensively in the production process (Ofreneo 2016). However, there is a risk of increasing unemployment and labour force participation rate. It can be suggested to the Australian government to reduce the margin of minimum wage rate so that firms can recruit labour at a cheaper rate. Change in business model, which would be more consumer centric may be useful. Conclusion The report has analysed the increasing cost burden and the consequence of increasing cost in the Australian market. The article discusses the incidence of shutting down of car manufacturing industry in Australian market due to higher cost. High labour and capital cost increases total cost of production. This report has analysed causes of shutting down in details. This report has highlighted that decreasing domestic demand reduction in import tariff are another reasons for closure of auto mobile manufacturing in Australia. Recommendations have been suggested to transform loss making companied into profit making. References Baqaee, D.R., 2015. Cascading failures in production networks.See https://scholar. harvard. edu/files/baqaee/files/bailout_paper. pdf. Clibborn, S., Lansbury, R.D. and Wright, C.F., 2016. Who Killed the Australian Automotive Industry: The Employers, Government or Trade Unions?.Economic Papers: A journal of applied economics and policy. Dowling, J. 2017.Toyota confirms shutdown of its Camry factory in Altona, ending its 54 years of local car making. Available at: [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Hawthorne, J. 2017.Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Ofreneo, R.E., 2016. Auto and car parts production: can the Philippines catch up with Asia?.Asia Pacific Business Review,22(1), pp.48-64. Shepherd, R.W., 2015.Theory of cost and production functions. Princeton University Press. Valadkhani, A. 2016.Collapse of Australian car manufacturing industry | Swinburne news. Available at: [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017].